Intangible assets

Goodwill
All business combinations are accounted for by applying the acquisition method as at the acquisition date. Goodwill represents amounts arising on acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures.

In respect of acquisitions that have occurred since 1 January 2010, goodwill represents the excess of the cost of the acquisition over the Group’s interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities and contingent liabilities at the date of acquisition (measured based on methods as described in Note 4). Negative goodwill arising on an acquisition is recognised directly in the income statement, classified as ‘other income’. Costs related to the acquisition, other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, that Wessanen incurs in connection with a business combination are expensed as incurred.

In respect of acquisitions that have occurred between 1 January 2004 and 1 January 2010, goodwill represents the excess of the cost of the acquisition over the Group’s interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities and contingent liabilities at the date of acquisition. When the excess was negative, a bargain purchase gain was recognised directly in the income statement, classified as ‘other income’. Transaction costs, other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, that the Group incurred in connection with business combinations were capitalised as part of the cost of the acquisition.

In respect of acquisitions prior to 1 January 2004, goodwill is included on the basis of its deemed cost, which represents the amount recorded under previous Dutch GAAP. In respect of acquisitions prior to 1 January 2001, goodwill was deducted directly from equity under previous Dutch GAAP.

Goodwill is stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units and is not amortised but tested annually for impairment.

Brands and customer relationships
Capitalised brands and customer relationships are measured at cost
less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. Brands and customer relationships acquired in business acquisitions are initially
measured at fair value.

The useful lives of brand names have been determined on the basis of certain factors such as the economic environment, the expected use of the asset and related assets or groups of assets and legal or other provisions that might limit the useful life. Based on this assessment, the useful life is determined to be indefinite, since there is no foreseeable limit to the period of time over which the brand names are expected to contribute to the cash flows of the Group.

Capitalised brands with an indefinite life are not amortised, but tested annually for impairment.

Customer relationships are amortised over their estimated useful
lives of maximum 20 years.

Research and development
Expenditure on research activities, undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technological knowledge and understanding, is recognised in the income statement as an expense when incurred.

Expenditure on development activities, of which research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes, is capitalised if development costs can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable, and the Group intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset.

The expenditure capitalised includes the cost of materials, direct labor and overhead costs that are directly attributable to preparing the assets for its intended use. Other development expenditure is recognised in the income statement as an expense when incurred. Capitalised development expenditure is stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets that are acquired by Wessanen, which have
finite useful lives, are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation
and impairment losses.

Subsequent expenditure
Subsequent expenditure on capitalised intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure is expensed as incurred.

Amortisation
Amortisation is charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets unless such lives are indefinite. Intangible assets are amortised from the date they are available for use. Residual useful life is re-assessed annually.
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