Hedging

Cash flow hedges
If a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedge of the variability in cash flows of a recognised liability, a firm commitment or a highly probable forecasted transaction, the effective part of any gain or loss on the derivative financial instrument is recognised directly in other comprehensive income. When the firm commitment or forecasted transaction results in the recognition of an asset or liability, the cumulative gain or loss is removed from other comprehensive income and included in the initial measurement of the asset or liability. Otherwise, the cumulative gain or loss is removed from other comprehensive income and recognised in the income statement at the same time as the hedged transaction. The ineffective part of any gain or loss is immediately recognised in the income statement.

When a hedging instrument or hedge relationship is terminated, but the hedged transaction still is expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss at that point remains in other comprehensive income and is recognised in the income statement in accordance with the above policy when the transaction occurs. If the hedged transaction is no longer expected to take place, the cumulative unrealised gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income is recognised immediately in the income statement.

Fair value hedges
Fair value changes of derivative instruments that qualify for fair value
hedge accounting treatment are recognised for the hedged risk in the income statement in the periods in which they arise, together with any changes in fair value of the hedged asset or liability.

Hedge of monetary assets and liabilities

If a derivative financial instrument is used to economically hedge the foreign exchange exposure of a recognised monetary asset or liability, the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognised in the income statement, except for those financial instruments that are designated as hedges.

Hedge of net investment in a foreign operation
The portion of the gain or loss on an instrument used to hedge a net investment in a foreign operation that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised directly in other comprehensive income. The ineffective portion is recognised in the income
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